Oleh: Rany Syafrina
Patriarchal system is also introduced for us as a legitimate rule on our social and cultural life. Patriarchal system introduces us about the ideology which is said that male is superior to the female. In Minagkabau, We know that women have the authority toward the children’s and the good of their family. We as the Minangkabau people assume that we didn’t use the patriarchal system but matriarchal as the basic structure of our social life.
When we saw it deep inside the literary work that ever present as the Minagkabau literary work, we may see that the patriarchal system as the basic of life. It is picturing in two of Kaba (Traditional Story) whis titled Siti Risani and Rancak Dilabuah.
Siti risani is a story about Sutan Nasarudin and Siti Risani, they were falling in love each other when Sutan Nasarudin passed her house and their eyes meet each other. Their love story then continued to the step where both of them sent the love letters. Conflict came when Siti Risani had to marry Sutan Bagindo while in the other hand Nasarudin already married with another girl. Siti Risani made decision to run away from her family then getting married with Sutan Nasarurin.
Rancak Dilabuah is a story about a handsome guy who love to spent the money for nothing, when he owed some money and couldn’t pay it back, he asked his mother to pay. Then he promise to be a gentleman who hear his mother opinion, getting married and became a Penghulu.
From both of the story we may see the position of women toward Minagkabau culture. In Minangkabau we have Bundokanduang as a place to ask about the culture rule, she is a wise and person who knows the traditional rules. Both of the story present the different perspective of women in Minangkabau.
In general, patriarchy system present that women are irrational, weak, nurturing, and submissive which made them out of part on making decision toward the family. If we refer to the story of Siti Risani and rancak Dilabuah, we see that several women just followed the decision that is made for their life. From the story we know that patriarchal system made decision on women life and they accept it.
“mandanga kato nan bak kian, manjawab tuanku bijaksano,……… mukasuik kakak nantun, padi pikiran hati ambo, si upiak siti budiman jo si pakiah candokio,lah bak kapuran jo saoknyo, bak dulang jo tuduang saji, saedaran bumi jo langik, indak karagu dipikiakan, ambo tarimo kato nantun” (Kaba Rancak Dilabuah).
From the quotation above we may see how male character as a father has full authority toward his daughter, and he had authority to make decision on her life, because he didn’t have to asked her daughter to accept the proposed of reject it.
The same act also happens in the story of Siti Risani, where her father made decision toward her life without asking her for the answers.
From both of the story we may see the different position of wife on the family. Sity Risani story present that a wife must take the loyalty and honor to her husband, and give all of the authority to the husband to make decision. But it is different from Kaba rancak Dilabuah, where we saw that a mother as a single parent have power toward her family and she able to made decision for her life and her children life.
Both of the stories present the opposition position on wife power. In Siti Risani story we see that a wife is powerless than her husband because she already neglected by the patriarchal system, in Rancak Dilabuah we see how a single mother have power on her family.
The character of Siti Risani is picturing how a women struggle to madder decision toward her life without any neglected by the patriarchal system. She made decision to run away from her family to live with Sutan Nasarudin as the man that she loves. The movement that she made creates the gibing to her family, where the social already neglected by patriarchal system as the basic structure of social and cultural.
From the analysis above we may see how the patriarchal system neglected the structure of culture, where it develops an ideology that man is superior to the women. Whether we as a Minagkabau assume that we are a matriarchal people but actually the patriarchal system is the root of all the rules. Where male have more authority toward women.
Comparing these two stories we may find an ideology which is said that the women but get married and became a wife who takes care of the children. If the women on the house do not marry, the family will be anxious, and it make married became a must for the women in Minagkabau.
1. Kaba Rancak Dilabuah. Dt. Panduko Alam. KristalMultimedia cv
2. Kaba Siti Risani. Sutan Nasarudin. KristalMultimedia cv.